The Hardened Heart

The Hardened Heart

Author: Ustadz Abu Ahmad Said Yai, Lc.

{ أَفَمَنْ شَرَحَ اللَّهُ صَدْرَهُ لِلْإِسْلَامِ فَهُوَ عَلَى نُورٍ مِنْ رَبِّهِ فَوَيْلٌ لِلْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ مِنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ أُولَئِكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ}

“Can he whose breast Allah has opened up for Islam and who is thus (moving along a Path) illumined by a light from Allah (be likened to him who derives no lesson from what he observes)? Woe, then, to those whose hearts were further hardened after Allah’s admonition. Such are indeed in obvious error.” (Chapter Az Zumar/The Troops: 22)

The Concise Interpretation [1]

“Can he whose breast Allah has opened up for Islam”, i.e., by making it easier for him to know Allah, practice tawheed, obey Him, and become more enthusiast to practice the traching of Islam. And this is a good sign for a person.

“and who is thus (moving along a Path) illumined by a light from Allah (be likened to him who derives no lesson from what he observes)?”, i.e., the light of truth that makes his heart becomes more firm in its beliefs. Are they similar to people whose heart gets hardened? Certainly not.

“Woe, then, to those whose hearts were further hardened after Allah’s admonition. ” i.e., those whose hearts do not get softened upon being reminded of Allah, not devoted, not understand, not realize the truth, and always rebels.

“Such are indeed in obvious error.” that will send them into their doom.

The Hearts have Character

Every man posseses different characters. Those characters could also change with time. As with the heart. It also has certain characters to it. A heart could be healthy, as well as sick.

Allah the Glorified and Exalted decreed,

{ وَالَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ غَرَّ هَؤُلَاءِ دِينُهُمْ }

“…. and those whose hearts were diseased said: “Their faith has deluded these (believers).” (Chapter Al-Anfal/The Spoils of War:49)

A heart could be softened, yet it could also gets hardened like stone. Allah the Glorified and Exalted decreed,

{ ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ فَهِيَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً }

“Then (even after observing this) your hearts hardened and became like stones, or even harder.” (Chapter Al Baqarah/The Cow:74)

Likewise, a heart could be lustrous and shine, as well as blackened, as mentioned in several hadith narrated from the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-.

Therefore, we should try our best to pay attention to our heart’s condition at all time. We shouldn’t let our heart to become a hardened, or even start to get hardened, which eventually ends in a stone-hard heart. Na’ûdzu billâhi min dzâlik.

The Danger of Having A Hard Heart

The previous verse has clearly explained how a person with hard heart is despicable and is lost in an evident astray.

Malik Ibn Dinar -may Allah have mercy on him- once said,

( مَا ضُرِبَ عَبْدٌ بِعُقُوْبَةٍ أَعْظَمِ مِنْ قَسْوَةِ قَلْبٍ، وَمَا غَضِبَ اللهُ -عَزَّ وَجَلَّ- عَلَى قَوْمٍ إِلَّا نَزَعَ مِنْهُمُ الرَّحْمَةَ.)

A slave isn’t punished with a greater punishment than when his heart gets to be hardened. Allah the High and Almighty doesn’t afflict His wrath upon certain nation, except that He’ll take away His mercy from them.”[2]

The Signs of A Heart that grows hardened

A hard heart, or a heart that begins to get hardened, exhibits some signs below:

– being lazy in doing good and obedience, and underestimating a sin.

– It is not affected by the Qur’an verses recited to it; different from the believers, whose hearts will tremble whenever the Qur’an verses are recited to it, or being reminded of Allah. Allah the Glorified and Exalted decreed,

{ إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُهُ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا وَعَلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ }

“The true believers are those who, when Allah’s name is mentioned, their hearts quake, and when His verses are recited to them their faith grows, and who put their trust in their Lord,” (Chapter Al Anfal/The Spoils of War:2)

– It is not affected by many tests, trials, and calamity that Allah the Glorified and Exalted gave him. Allah the Glorified and Exalted decreed,

{ أَوَلَا يَرَوْنَ أَنَّهُمْ يُفْتَنُونَ فِي كُلِّ عَامٍ مَرَّةً أَوْ مَرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ لَا يَتُوبُونَ وَلَا هُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ }

“Do they not see that they are tried every year once or twice? Yet they neither repent nor take heed.” (Chapter At Tawba/The Repentance: 126)

– It doesn’t fear of Allah’s promise and threat – Glorified and Exalted be He-
– It’s love for worldly pleasures only ever increases and thus it prioritizes the world above the hereafter
– It never reaches peacefulness and always in dismay
– It keeps doing, even increases the sins that its done. Allah the Glorified and Exalted decreed,

{ فَلَمَّا زَاغُوا أَزَاغَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ }

“So when they deviated, Allah made their hearts deviant. Allah does not direct the evil-doers to the Right Way. ” (Chapter Ash Shaff/The Ranks: 5)

– It cannot differ between a good and en evil deed

And many other signs to recognize its hardened state. Therefore, we should try our best to detect our hearts’ condition, just in case it starts to harden.

What causes a heart to harden

There are reasons why a heart could grow hardened. Among those reasons are:

Shirk, kufr, and hypocrisy
These are the biggest reason for a heart to harden, and ones that could cover one’s heart from accepting the truth.

{ سَنُلْقِي فِي قُلُوبِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا الرُّعْبَ بِمَا أَشْرَكُوا بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَمَأْوَاهُمُ النَّارُ وَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى الظَّالِمِينَ}

“We will cast terror into the hearts of those who have denied the Truth since they have associated others with Allah in His Divinity, for which He has sent down no sanction. The Fire is their abode; how bad the resting place of the wrong-doers will be!” (Chapter Ali ‘Imran/The Family of Imran:151)

Breaking the promise to Allah
Allah the Glorified and Exalted decreed,

{ فَبِمَا نَقْضِهِمْ مِيثَاقَهُمْ لَعَنَّاهُمْ وَجَعَلْنَا قُلُوبَهُمْ قَاسِيَةً }

“Then, for their breach of the covenant We cast them away from Our Mercy and caused their hearts to harden.” (Chapter Al Maaidah/The Table Spread:13)

Sheikh Abu Bakr Al-Jazairi said, upon interpreting the verse, “Breaking it by being inconsistent with the content of the Qur’an, of orders and prohibition.” [3]

Laughing excessively
The Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said,

(( لاَ تُكْثِرُوا الضَّحِكَ ، فَإِنَّ كَثْرَةَ الضَّحِكِ تُمِيتُ الْقَلْبَ.))

” Do not laugh too much, for too much laughing could kill the heart.”[4]

talking and eating excessively
Bisyr Ibn Al-Harits once said,

(خَصْلَتَانِ تُقَسِّيَانِ الْقَلْبَ: كَثْرَةُ الْكَلَامِ وَكَثْرَةُ الْأَكْلِ.)

“There are two things that could harden a heart: excessive talking and excessive eating.”[5]

Committing many sins
The Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said,

( إِنَّ الْمُؤْمِنَ إِذَا أَذْنَبَ كَانَتْ نُكْتَةٌ سَوْدَاءُ فِي قَلْبِهِ ، فَإِنْ تَابَ وَنَزَعَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ ، صُقِلَ قَلْبُهُ ، فَإِنْ زَادَ ، زَادَتْ ، فَذَلِكَ الرَّانُ الَّذِي ذَكَرَهُ اللَّهُ فِي كِتَابِهِ : {كَلاَّ بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ}.)

“Indeed, when a believer committs a sin, a black dot will appear in his heart. If he repents, ceases (from committing the sin) and asks for forgiveness, his heart will return to shining. But if he continues to sin, the black dot will increase as well. That is Ar-Raan (the cover) that Allah mentioned in His Book: “No indeed! The truth is that their hearts have become rusted on account of their evil deeds. (Chapter Al Muthaffifiin: 14)”

Being negligent of the obligation to Allah
Allah the Glorified and Exalted decreed,

{ وَلَقَدْ ذَرَأْنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ كَثِيرًا مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنْسِ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ لَا يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ آذَانٌ لَا يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا أُولَئِكَ كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ

“And certainly We have created for Hell many of the jinn and mankind; they have hearts with which they fail to understand; and they have eyes with which they fail to see; and they have ears with which they fail to hear. They are like cattle – indeed, even more astray. Such are utterly heedless. ” (Chapter Al A’raf/The Height:179)

– Songs and Music
‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud -may Allah be pleased with him- once said,

(( الْغِنَاءُ يُنْبِتُ النِّفَاقَ فِى الْقَلْبِ ))

“Songs grows hypocrisy in the heart.”[6]

– A seductive voice of woman

{ فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَعْرُوفًا }

“Wives of the Prophet, you are not like other women. If you fear Allah, do not be too complaisant in your speech lest those with diseased hearts should covet you; but speak in a straight forward manner.” (Chapter Al Ahzab/The Clans:32)

Following the things that ruin the heart
There are many things that could ruin the heart. However, there are five main “keys” that could demoralize the heart the most, as revealed by Ibn Al Qayyim – may Allah have mercy on him-

(وَأَمَّا مُفْسِدَاتُ الْقَلْبِ الْخَمْسَةُ…: مِنْ كَثْرَةِ الْخِلْطَةِ, وَالتَّمَنِّي, وَالتَّعَلُّقُ بِغَيْرِ اللهِ, وَالشَّبْعُ, وَالْمَنَامُ. فَهذِهِ الْخَمْسَةُ مِنْ أَكْبَرِ مُفْسِدَاتِ الْقَلْبِ.)

“As for the five things that destroy the heart, they are: excessive socializing (gathering with people), (excessive) dreaming, relying on other than Allah, excessive eating, and excessive sleeping. These are the five main things that could destroy the heart.”[7]

By knowing there causes, hopefully we’ll be able to avoid it, in order to prevent our heart to get hardened, or harder.

Remedy for The Hardened Heart

The hardened heart needs remedy in order for it to thaw, and below are several things that could soften a heart:

– Believing in Allah, and always increase the faith.
Allah the Glorified and Exalted decreed,

{ وَمَنْ يُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ يَهْدِ قَلْبَهُ }

“And whosoever has faith in Allah, Allah directs his heart along the Right Path. ” (Chapter At Taghabun/Mutual Disillusion:11)

Remembering Allah (dhikr) often times, and reciting the Qur’an with contemplation of its meaning
Allah the Glorified and Exalted decreed,

{ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَتَطْمَئِنُّ قُلُوبُهُمْ بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ أَلَا بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ تَطْمَئِنُّ الْقُلُوبُ }

“Such are the ones who believe (in the message of the Prophet) and whose hearts find rest in the remembrance of Allah. Surely in Allah’s remembrance do hearts find rest.” (Chapter Ar-Ra’d/The Thunder: 28)

Studying religious knowledges
There is no doubt that the religious knowledge could guide its pursuer to be a God-fearing slave of Allah. At the beginning of chapter Ali Imran, Allah the Glorified and Exalted praised people with profound knowledge. Do you know, what was their prayer? Their prayer was:

{ رَبَّنَا لَا تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ رَحْمَةً إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْوَهَّابُ }

“They pray to Allah: “Our Lord! Do not let our hearts swerve towards crookedness after You have guided us to the Right Way, and bestow upon us Your Mercy for You are the Munificent Giver!” (Chapter Aali Imraan/The Family of Imraan:8)

They know their Lord better than the common people, and they also know better that human’s heart changes, thus they pray with the said prayer.

Seeking for Allah’s protection from the undevoted heart, by reciting the prayer taught by the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-
The prayer is:

(اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّى أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ عِلْمٍ لاَ يَنْفَعُ وَمِنْ قَلْبٍ لاَ يَخْشَعُ وَمِنْ نَفْسٍ لاَ تَشْبَعُ وَمِنْ دَعْوَةٍ لاَ يُسْتَجَابُ لَهَا.)

“O Allah! I seek Your protection, from knowledge without benefit, undevoted heart, dissatisfied soul, and unanswered prayer.”[8]

Treating the orphan and the poor kindly
It is narrated from Abu Huraira -may Allah be pleased with him- that someone complained about his hardened heart to the Messenger of Allah – peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-. He -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said,

(( إِنْ أَرَدْتَ أَنْ يَلِينَ قَلْبُكَ ، فَأَطْعِمِ الْمِسْكِينَ ، وَامْسَحْ رَأْسَ الْيَتِيمِ.))

“If you want your heart to be softened, feed the poor, and stroke the head of the orphan.”[9]

Remembering death
It is narrated from Shafiyah -may Allah be pleased with her- that a woman came to see ‘Aisha -may Allah be pleased with her- and complained about her hardened heart. ‘Aisha then said, “Remember the death at most of your times, you’ll get what you wish for.” Then the woman did what she was told of. After that, she found a guidance in her heart and thanked ‘Aisha -may Allah be pleased with her-. [10]

Sa’îd Ibn Jubair[11] and Rabî’ Ibn Abi Râsyid[12] – may Allah have mercy on them both- ever said,

(( لَوْ فَارَقَ ذِكْرُ الْمَوْتِ قَلْبِي سَاعَةً خَشِيت أَنْ يَفْسُدَ قَلْبِي.))

“Had remembering the death was separated from my heart even for just a time, I’m afraid my heart will be ruined.”

Visiting the grave at often times
Abu Thalib (disciple of Imam Ahmad) once said, “a man once asked Abu Abdillah (Imam Ahmad) regarding how to soften his heart. He answered, ‘Enter the graveyard and stroke the head of the orphan.”[13]

The Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- once said,

(( …فَزُورُوا الْقُبُورَ فَإِنَّهَا تُذَكِّرُ الْمَوْتَ.))

“Visit the grave! Indeed, it could remind you of death.”[14]

Attending religious lecture
Attending religious lecture and lecture full with advices greatly influences a man’s heart. Lets read the saying of Al-‘Irbâdh bin Sâriya -may Allah be pleased with him-, “One day, the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- prayed and then turned to face us, and gave us a very touching edvice that made our tears flowing and our hearts shaking.”[15]

Staying away from the causes of trials and sins
To prevent our hearts from hardening, we shall put our best effort to avoid the causes of sins and trials. Therefore, Allah the Glorified and Exalted prohibited the companions to ask question or favor from the wives of the Prophet – peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- except from behind a curtain.

Allah the Glorified and Exalted decreed,

{ وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ ذَلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّ }

And if you were to ask the wives of the Prophet for something, ask from behind a curtain. That is more apt for the cleanness of your hearts and theirs.” (Chapter Al Ahzab/The Clans :53)

10. Consuming the lawful food

Once, Imam Ahmad was asked by a man, “What makes the heart soften?” He replied, “O son! (It gets softened) by consuming lawful food.”[16]

11. Performing the night prayer

12. Worshipping and getting closer to Allah at the sahoor time (before fajr/dawn)

13. Befriending the righteous people

Ibrahim Al-Khawwash once said,

(دَوَاءُ الْقَلْبِ خَمْسَةُ أَشْيَاء : قِرَاءَةُ الْقُرْآنِ بِالتَّدَبُّرِ, وَخَلَاءُ الْبَطْنِ, وَقِيَامُ اللَّيْلِ, وَالتَّضَرُّعُ عِنْدَ السَّحْرِ, وَمُجَالَسَةُ الصَّالِحِيْنَ.)

“There are five kinds of remedy for the heart: reciting the Qur’an with contemplation, emptying the stomach, praying the night prayer, getting closer (to Allah) at the sahoor time, and sit with (befriending) the righteous people.”[17]

Repenting from The Hardened Heart

Dear readers, one of you might say, “My heart is already growing very hard, how could Allah accept my repentance! I’ve done too many sins.”

Know, O brother muslims, that Allah the Glorified and Exalted is named Al Ghafuur (The Forgiver). Allah will forgive all of the sins of His slave, if the slave sincerely wants to return to Him.

Look at the following verse:

“{ قُلْ يَا عِبَادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ لَا تَقْنَطُوا مِنْ رَحْمَةِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ جَمِيعًا إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ }

Tell them, (O Prophet): “My servants who have committed excesses against themselves, do not despair of Allah’s Mercy. Surely Allah forgives all sins. He is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Chapter Az Zumar/The Troop: 52

Also the following hadith qudsy below:

قَالَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى : يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ إِنَّكَ مَا دَعَوْتَنِي وَرَجَوْتَنِي غَفَرْتُ لَكَ عَلَى مَا كَانَ فِيكَ وَلاَ أُبَالِي ، يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ لَوْ بَلَغَتْ ذُنُوبُكَ عَنَانَ السَّمَاءِ ثُمَّ اسْتَغْفَرْتَنِي غَفَرْتُ لَكَ ، وَلاَ أُبَالِي ، يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ إِنَّكَ لَوْ أَتَيْتَنِي بِقُرَابِ الأَرْضِ خَطَايَا ثُمَّ لَقِيتَنِي لاَ تُشْرِكُ بِي شَيْئًا لأَتَيْتُكَ بِقُرَابِهَا مَغْفِرَةً.

“On the authority of Ibn Abbas -may Allah be pleased with them both- , from The Messenger of Allah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, as he narrated from his God the Most Purified and The Highest, Verily Allah has determined decent and undecent things, then He explains it. Those who want to perform good deed but he does not perform it in the end, then Allah will note it as one perfect good deed beside Him. If he intends to do it and really perform it in the end, Allah will then note it as ten good deeds until seven hundred times more, even until many times more. If he has an intention to perform evil deed, but in the end he never performs it he will then receive one perfect good deed, however if he, in the end, performs the evil deed, Allah will only note it as one evil deed. “. (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)”


A heart has characteristics that is very changeable.
People whose heart has been opened to accept Islam, and obey Allah, is not similar to those with hardened hearts,
People with hard heart will receive severe threats
People with hard heart possesses the following characters : being lazy in doing good deeds, his heart isn’t affected by recitation of Qur’an verses or by various trials, being fearless to Allah’s promise and wrath, increasing love to the world and putting it before the Hereafter, unsettling heart, increasing sins, etc.
the heart could get hardened due to some causes. Therefore, we should try our best to avoid those causes.
The hard heart could be remedied using some methods above.
People who have indulged themselves in evildoings, or felt that his heart is as hard as stone, should repent to Allah immediately, and Allah will repent His slaves who truly repent to Him.
May this article benefits us all, and may Allah always protect our hearts in its softened state, Amin.

(( يَا مُقَلِّبَ الْقُلُوبِ ثَبِّتْ قَلْبِي عَلَى دِينِكَ وَطَاعَتِكَ. آمِيْن ))


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Dzammul-Hawâ. ‘Abdurrahmân bin Abil-Hasan Al-Jauzi. Tahqîq : Mushthafâ ‘Abdul-Wâhid.
Hilyatul-Auliyâ’ wa Thabaqatul-Ashfiyâ’. Abu Nu’aim Ahmad bin ‘Abdillah Al-Ashbahâni. 1405. Beirut: Dârul-Kitâb Al-‘Arabi.
Jâmi’ul-bayân fî ta’wîlil-Qur’ân. Muhammad bin Jarîr Ath-Thabari. Beirut: Muassasah Ar-Risâlah.
Ma’âlimut-tanzîl. Abu Muhammad Al-Husain bin Mas’ûd Al-Baghawi. 1417 H/1997 M. Riyâdh:Dâr Ath-Thaibah.
Madârijus-sâlikîn. Ibnu Qayyim Al-Jauziyah. Beirut: Dâru Ihyâ’ At-Turâts Al-‘Arabi.
10. Mushannaf Ibni Abi Syaibah. ‘Abdullâh bin Muhammad bin Abi Syaibah. Dâr As-Salafiyah Al-Hindiyah Al-Qadîmah.

11. Syu’abul-Îmân. Ahmad bin Al-Husain Al-Baihaqi. 2003 M/1423 H. Riyâdh: Maktabatur-Rusyd.

12. Tafsîr Al-Qur’ân Al-‘Adzhîm. Ismâ’îl bin ‘Umar bin Katsir. 1420 H/1999 M. Riyâdh: Dâr Ath-Thaibah.

13. Thabaqât Al-Hanâbilah. Abul-Husain bin Abi Ya’la. Beirut: Dârul-Ma’rifah.

14. And other sources as we’ve mentioned in the footnotes below.


[1] Summarized and compiled from Tafsîr At-Thabari XXI/277-278, Tafsîr Ibni Katsîr III/334-336 and VII/93, and At-Tahrîr wa At-Tanwîr XXIV/63-64.

[2] Ma’âlimut-Tanzîl VII/115.

[3] Aisarut-Tafâsîr I/338.

[4] Narrated by Ibn Maja no. 4193 and other narrators (Classified valid by Sheikh Al-Albâni in Shahîh Ibn Mâjah).

[5] Hilyatul-Auliyâ’ VIII/350 .

[6] Narrated by Al-Baihaqi in Syu’abil-Îmân VII/107 and other narrators (This is a hadith mauqûf and it is classified as valid by Sheikh Al-Albâni in ‘Silsilah Adh-Dha’îfah’ upon explaining the narrators of hadîts no. 2430).

[7] Madârijus-Sâlikîn I/343.

[8] Narrated by Muslim no. 7081 and other narrators.

[9] Narrated by Ahmad no. 7576 dan 9018. It is classified as hasan hadith by Sheikh Al-Albâni in Ash-Shahîhah no. 854.

[10] Narrated by Ibn Abi Ad-Dunya (taken from the book Dzammu Qaswatil-qalb).

[11] Narrated by Ahmad in Az-Zuhd no. 2006, Hilyatul-Auliya’ IV/276 and other narrators.

[12] Narrated by Ibn Abi Syaibah in Al-Mushannaf XIII/562 and other narrators.

[13] Thabaqât Al-Hanâbilah I/39.

[14] Narrated by Muslim no. 2304 and other narrators.

[15] Narrated by Abu Dâwud no. 4607, At-Tirmidzi no. 2676 and Ibn Mâja no. 43 (It is classified as valid hadith by Sheikh Al-Albâni in Shahih Abi Dâwûd and in other works).

[16] Hilyatul-Auliyâ’ IX/182.

[17] Dzammul-Hawâ I/70.

[18] Narrated by At-Tirmidzi no. 3540. It is classified as valid hadith by Sheikh Al-Albâni in Shahîh At-Tirmidzi.

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