Author: Prof. Dr. ‘Abdurrazzaaq bin ‘Abdil-Muhsin Al-‘Abbaad


{ وَإِذْ قَالَ لُقْمَانُ لِابْنِهِ وَهُوَ يَعِظُهُ يَا بُنَيَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ }


“And call to mind when Luqman said to his son while exhorting him: “

. Surely, associating others with Allah in His Divinity is a mighty wrong.” (Luqmaan:13) 

Tenth Lesson 

(In this verse, there is explanation about) the importance of the correct method in giving lesson (al-wa’dzh), in regards to education and teaching. Allaah th Exalted decreed, 

{ وَإِذْ قَالَ لُقْمَانُ لِابْنِهِ وَهُوَ يَعِظُهُ }

“And call to mind when Luqman said to his son while exhorting him,”

The method of teaching a lesson or exhorting has a great influence in education mankind, and in guiding the growing kids. Al-Wa’dzh, as explained by the scholars means the knowldge which men are directed to obtain, and guided to practice, along with targhiib (motivation conveyed to increase their spirit) and tarhiib (warning conveyed to incite fear from committing what is warned against), in which a person reminds other of a goodness, as well as things that can motivate him to do it, and of a prohibition, as well as things that can deter him from committing it. Thus, al-wa’dzh means enjoining people to do good and prohibit them from evil supported with targhiib and tarhiib. 

At-Targhiib can be exerted by mentioning the benefits, the good results, and the good impacts that a slave can obtain by obeying Allaah’s command. Whereas At-Tarhiib can be achieved by mentioning the evils and the dangers that can inflict a person who commit the prohibited act. 

That is what Luqmaan Al-Hakiim did; his advices contain targhiib that are useful in motivation the object of his da’waa, to persuade them to perform obediences that he enjoined them into in the best way and condition, as well as tarhiib that could protect the object of his da’waa from committing sin and mistake. 

Eleventh Lesson 

(In this verse there is explanation about) the importance of being amicable and its great influence in people who learn from him and who study under his tutelage 

When you give lesson and advice to other, it is only appropriate for you to be amicable and friendly to the person. Use gentle expressions and beautiful words that can enter your words in his heart, open it, and soften it in order to accept your words. 

Take a look ar Luqmaan when he was giving a lesson to his son; he used beautiful expressions, an impactful method and words that left deep impression inside hearts. 

Look at the gentleness of his words towards his son, when he taught him, “O bunayya [2] (O, my dear little son!),”. He mentioned the words repeatedly, because it had an important place inside a child’s heart. It had a great influence towards his son, and immensely helpful for him to listen well to the lesson, so he could infer valuable lessons from it. How great the power of a word, if it is expressed in amicable way. 

If it is conveyed in an unfriendly way, such as how a man advised or prohibited his child by saying, “O walad[3] (Hey kid)!”, or such as mentioned by some people when they spoke to their children or prohibited them from certain thing, in which they called their own children by animals name. How can a heart of the admonished will be open, and accept the advice if we use such a hateful method? There is no doubt that it will only close their mind and heart, and dispirit them from accepting it. 

There is a stark contrast between people who exhort their children harshly, and ones who exhort their children gently and amicably, such as how Luqman spoke to his son, “O bunayya (O my little son)!”; he uttered the words full of affection, fatherly tone, gently and lovingly. Thus, his son’s heart will be opened. 

Also look at the kind and amicable manner in the hadith of Mu’aadz Ibn Jabal -may Allaah be pleased with him-. One day, the Prophet -peace and prayer of Allaah be upon him- took his hand and said, “Indeed, I love you,”. Mu’aadz replied, “By my father and mother, O Messenger of Allaah! I love you, too, “ The Prophet said, “I advise you, O Mu’aadz, that after you performed your prayer, never forget to recite: 

( اللَّهُمَّ أَعِنِّى عَلَى ذِكْرِكَ وَشُكْرِكَ وَحُسْنِ عِبَادَتِكَ )

“O Allaah! Please help me to remember You, and be grateful to You, and (help me to be able) to worship You properly.”[4] 

He began with gentle and friendly expressions, hence Mu’aadz was able to receive his wisdom, his heart was opened beforehand and ready to accept it. This is the method that is supposedly used by anyone who intend to enjoin people to Allaah the Glorified and Exalted’s path, and who desired to teach people goodness. 

Twelfth Lesson 

(In this verse, there is an explanation about) the importance of paying attention to priorities in enjoining people to Allaah’s path. It is appropriate for parents, educators, and preachers who call people to Allaah to pay attention to this priority. When someone enjoin people to Allaah’s path and is willing to persuade people to do good, he or she should begin with the most important thing, then the important, then lesser in importance. It is also applied in teaching children, as well as training and preparing the youth. 

The first and foremost for us is to “instill” the correct beliefs and faith, only after that that we can teach people about worshipping rituals, manner, and etiquette. Therefore, when the Prophet -peace and prayer of Allaah be upon him- sent Mu’aadz Ibn Jabal -may Allaah be pleased with him- to Yemen, he said to him, 

( إِنَّكَ تَقْدَمُ عَلَى قَوْمٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ فَلْيَكُنْ أَوَّلَ مَا تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَى أَنْ يُوَحِّدُوا اللَّهَ تَعَالَى )

“Indeed, you will come to a nation from the people of the scribe. Thus the first thing that you should call them to is for them to worship Allaah the Exalted alone.” [5] 

this is the method that Luqmaan Al-Hakiim used when he exhorted his son with several useful lessons. His son was in need of those lessons, and of persuasion to do it. He began his exhortation with, 

{ يَا بُنَيَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ }

“My son, do not associate others with Allah in His Divinity,” because he paid attention to priority (in da’waa). 

Thirteenth Lesson 

Indeed, shirk is the gravest of sin and the most dangerous of them. Shirk, or assigning partner to Allaah the Glorified and the Exalted, is the Allah’s most emphasized prohibition. We’ll be able to tell by observing what Luqmaan Al-Hakiim did; he began his exhortation by warning his son against the most dangerous thing. This is the correct method practiced by the preachers and admonishers upon prohibiting people from several dangerous things, i.e., they begin from the most dangerous one. 

Therefore, Luqmaan Al-Hakiim prohibited his son from committing shirk. If we examine the context of these blessed verses, we’ll see that he prohibited his son from committing several things, such as arrogance, fraud, and haughtiness. However, the first prohibition that he warned against was to commit shirk to Allaah. It indicates that shirk is the most dangerous thing, and the worst in impacts. 

Fourteenth Lesson 

(In this verse, there is an explanation about) the importance of emphasizing tawheed, sincerity (in performing good deeds), and avoiding shirk, towards childen, since a very young age.

{ يَا بُنَيَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ }

My son, do not associate others with Allah in His Divinity. “

Children undoubtedly are in dire need of warning from the danger of shirk, and of persuasion to tawheed and performing righteous deed sincerely forAllaah the Glorified and Exalted. If a child received lessons about tawheed during the early period of his life, by Allaah’s permission, the lesson will bring him plentiful benefits. 

Therefore, among the lesson contained in ennaming of a child with the name of ‘Abdullah, and ‘Abdurrahman. As mentined in the hadith, 

( خَيْرُ الأَسْمَاءِ عَبْدُ اللهِ وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ )

“The best of name are ‘Abdullaah and ‘Abdurrahman,”[6] 

is for the child to grow upon the foundation of tawheed, and reach his or her adulthood while knowing that he or she is Allaah’s slave/servant, not the slave of lust and worldly desire, or the slave of the world, or the slave of satan, or the slave of his own interests. Instead, he is the slave of Allaah, The Blesser, and Exalted be He. 

The child will grow up upon the foundation of faith and correct beliefs. Faith and beliefs are the foundation of religion; any other faith and beliefs concept are built upon them. Religion will not be able to stand tall and to walk on the straight path except if it is built upon tawheed and sincerity to Allaah the Blesser, the Exalted. 

Fifteenth Lesson 

Indeed, shirk is the gravest and the most major of evil and transgression. This notion is derived from Allaah’s decreed -The Blesser, The Exalted-: 

{ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ }

“Surely, associating others with Allah in His Divinity is a mighty wrong.” 

The meaning of wrongdoing is positioning something in a wrongful place. What other wrong that is more severe than worship something wrongfully? How can any worshipping is devoted upon creations which are very weak, full of flaws, which are unable to benefit himself, as well as avoiding harm by himself, and are unable to give life or to ressurect other living being. 

What other sin that is graver than this sin? Allaah has created mankind, however, they worship other than Him? Allaah has bestowed upon them provisions, but he asks for it from someone else? Allaah has cured him, but he asked for Cure from anyone beside Allaah. What other wrong is more severe than these acts? 

Sixteenth Lesson 

People who are new in studying Islam or newly converted to Islam  are in dire need of knowing the fruit (that yields) from the commands and the danger of committing the prohibitions, in order for him to obey them. 

If a command is mentioned, it is preferable to mention the wisdom and result of that command. If a prohibition is mentioned, it is preferable to mention the evil result of committing it and the bad end of people who follow their whim in it. And such explanation are sparsed in the story of Luqmaan, on several places. 

Seventeenth Lesson 

In this verse, there are advices to be devoted to parents, treat them well, honor them properly, and caring for their rights. Such advices are mentioned in Allaah the Exalted’s decree, 

{ وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنْسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْنًا عَلَى وَهْنٍ وَفِصَالُهُ فِي عَامَيْنِ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيْكَ إِلَيَّ الْمَصِيرُ}

“We enjoined upon man to be dutiful to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness upon weakness, and his weaning lasted two years. (We, therefore, enjoined upon him): “Give thanks to Me and to your parents. To Me is your ultimate return” (Luqmaan: 14) 

The advice to do good to parents is of major thing, since advices are only issued for major things. And if look closely, the advice originates from the Lord of the universe -Almighty and High be He-. Therefore, some experts in Qur’an interpretation explained that the statement: 

{ وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنْسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ }

“We enjoined upon man to be dutiful to his parents,”

Is in additional context that brances out from Allaah’s exposition about the story of Luqmaan (hence, it wasn’t included in Luqmaan’s exhortation towards his son, -tr); instead, it is the advice from Allaah th Exalted for mankind so that they be dutiful to their parents. 

Therefore, this additional context contains many great and profound wisdoms that are full of blessings, i.e., advices regarding both parent, recognizing their rights, treating them well and being dutiful to them, as well as fulfilling their rights. 

Eighteenth Wisdom 

Indeed, among the most influential thing in order to realize a child’s devotion towards his or her parent is by memorizing the beauty of the past and all the kind treatments that they had given to their child until now. It can aid a person to be dutiful towards his or her parent, and distance him or her from undutiful deed and severing family ties. 

Take a heed of Allaah’s decree below: 

{ وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنْسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْنًا عَلَى وَهْنٍ وَفِصَالُهُ فِي عَامَيْنِ }

We enjoined upon man to be dutiful to his parents. His mother bore him in”” weakness upon weakness, and his weaning lasted two years.

i.e., O Child! Remember what happened to your mother, of her love and of the time she bore you in her womb, nursed you, and educated you. Remember the difficulties and tiredness she endured during her pregnancy, during the very long time you grew in her womb, how hard it was for her to carry you everywhere inside her belly for nine months. How hard it was for her upon standing, sitting, and sleeping.

Then remember when she delivered you to the world, how difficult and painful it was for her to bring you into this world safely. 

After that, do not forget of times when she nursed you, and of the hardships she had to endure in the forms of fatigue, pain, and sleep deprivation. 

All those beautiful memories should never be forgotten and should never leave one’s mind forever. 

Nineteenth lesson 

Among the things that can help us in realizing our devotion to parents is by remembering where remembering our place of origin, and our place of return, which is Allaah alone. People who are devoted and doing good towards their oarents will return to Allaah and will be rewarded for his good deeds and devotion. Hence, he will increase his good deeds and devotion towards his parents.

Whereas the evil doer ((towards his parents) will return to Allaah and will receive punishment for his evil deeds. Hence, he will be terrified to repeat his evil deed and unfilial acts towards his parents. It is derived from Allaah’s word, 

{ إِلَيَّ الْمَصِيرُ }

“To me alone you belong,”

Twentieth Lesson 

(in this verse, there is an explanation about) the large amount of a mother’s right. Indeed, mother is person who is most deserves of devotion and noble treatment. It is mentioned in a hadith that a man asked the Prophet -peace and prayer of Allaah be upon him-, saying,

( يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ مَنْ أَحَقُّ النَّاسِ بِحُسْنِ صَحَابَتِي؟ قَالَ: (أُمُّكَ). قَالَ: ثُمَّ مَنْ؟ قَالَ: (ثُمَّ أُمُّكَ). قَالَ: ثُمَّ مَنْ؟ قَالَ: (ثُمَّ أُمُّكَ). قَالَ: ثُمَّ مَنْ؟ قَالَ: (ثُمَّ أَبُوكَ).

“O Messenger of Allaah, who is the person that is most deserved of my good treatment?”. He answered, “Your mother.” He asked again, “Then who?,” He answered, “Your mother,” He asked again, “Then who?,” He answered, “Your mother,” He asked again, “Then who?,” He answered, “Then, your father.” [7] 

The Prophet -peace and prayer of Allaah be upon him- mentioned the word “mother” three times, because any good treatment should and most appropriate to be given to mother. It is because of the kindness that a child received from his or her mother is incomparable, and nothing even comes close it. 

Therefore, some scholars said, “Indeed, in this verse, there is an indication and affirmation of the Prophet’s saying, “Your mother, then your mother, then your mother.” 

The reason why Allaah the Almighty, the High mentioned a mother for three times in this verse is because of the three immeasurable kindnesses that she has towards her child. 

The first one is her motherly instinct. 


The second one is her childbearing,


The third one is her breastfeeding (of her child).


These are the three immeasurable kindnesses of a mother, which won’t be obtained from other than her, not from a father, nor from anybody who have treated the child well. 

It bears a meaning that it is suggested for a child to return those kindnesses with the equal kindness, and that his mother is the most deserving person to receive his kindness. 

Ironically, among the major calamity these days, is that you’ll find some people whose mothers shower them with endless kindness and love, extends their devotion, gentleness, and kindness towards others who may or may not be able to offer them even one tenth of the kindness their mothers give them; and they did nothing kind towards their mothers. Even if they treat them kindly, that treatment is merely a little compared to what they give to others. 

Is that how we repay all the love and kindness that we’ve received so far? Is that how we thank people who have treated us well? 

Therefore, being faithless towards mother is among the grave sins and the humblest of humiliation. How could a child being faithless towards his mother, while she is the one who gives him the most abundant of kindness and generosity??. 

Twenty First Lesson 

Indeed, whatever a mother had gone through, of the hardships and tiredness during her pregnancy and delivery, is something that a child will never be able to reciprocate even though he devotes all his life and be earnest (in his attempt to reciprocate it). 

Twenty Second Lesson 

Indeed, the conjoint of parent’s rights to Allah’s rights (in this verse) indicates the high rank of their rights. Their rights are more deserved to be fulfilled after Allaah’s rights. 

Such conjoint can be found in many places in the Qur’an; in which Allaah conjoints His rights – Almight and High be He- with th rights of parent. 

Twenty Third Lesson

The expression of gratitude to parents are, for example, by loving them, praying for their sake, rekindling family ties, and being devoted to them. 

Twenty Fourth Lesson 

The verse contains an explanation about the harm of being undevoted to parent. Being unfilial is among the gravest and the most despicable of sin. 

In “Shahihain”, in a hadith narrated by Abu Bakrah -may Allaah be pleased with him- he recounted that the Messenger of Allaah -peace and prayer of Allaah be upon him- said, 

( أَلاَ أُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِأَكْبَرِ الْكَبَائِرِ؟) –ثَلاَثًا- قَالُوا: بَلَى يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ! قَالَ: (الإِشْرَاكُ بِاللَّهِ وَعُقُوقُ الْوَالِدَيْنِ) -وَجَلَسَ ، وَكَانَ مُتَّكِئًا- فَقَالَ: (أَلاَ وَقَوْلُ الزُّورِ) قَالَ: فَمَا زَالَ يُكَرِّرُهَا حَتَّى قُلْنَا لَيْتَهُ سَكَتَ.

“Would you like me to tell you about the gravest among the major sins?”? The companions said, “Yes.” He said, “Assigning partner to Allaah, and being unfilial to parent.” Then he changed position from reclining to sitting, and said, “Know that, and telling lies as well,” Abu Bakrah said, “He kept on repeating it until we said, ‘If only he stop talking.” [8] 

To be continued….


[1] Translated from his book, titled ‘Fawaaidu Mustanbathah min Qishshati Luqman Al-Hakiim’ by Abu Ahmad Said Yai. At the end of this book, he said, “The origin of this book is my sermon that I delivered in the complex of Al-Haramain Asy-Syariifain, in the city of Haail, on Wednesday, 28th of Muharram 1426 H. It was typed from my cassette and I edited it a little afterwards. I prefer that the written form is similar to the sermon. And Allaah is the only One Who Gives Guidance.” 

[2] (i.e., a very gentle way of calling a child in Arabic language, from the past untul now, -tr) 

[3] (i.e., a very harsh way of calling a child in Arabic language in present context- tr) 

[4]. It is narrated by Ahmad, hadith no. 22119, Abu Daawuud no. 1522 and An-Nasaa-i in Al-Kubraa no. 9937. Sheikh Al-Albaani classified it as valid hadith in Shahih Al-Jaami’ no. 7969.

[5]. Narrated by Al-Bukhaari no. 1389 and 6937, and Muslim no. 19 from the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbaas -may Allaah be pleased with him-. 

[6]. Narrated by Ahmad no. 17606 and Al-Haakim (IV/276). Al-Haakim classified it as valid hadith, and Adz-Dzahabi agreed with him. Refer to Ash-Shahiihah no. 904.

[7]. Narrated by Al-Bukhaari no. 5971 and Muslim no. 2548 from the hadith of Abu Hurairah.

[8]. Narrated by Al-Bukhaari no. 2654 and Muslim no. 87.

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