Who is Muhammad? To Get to Know The Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam
He is Muhammad Ibn Abdillah Ibn Abdil Mutallib bin Hashim. Hashim was originally came from the tribe of Quraish, the Quraish is one of the Arabic tribes, and the Arabic tribes are the descendant of Ismail Ibn Ibrahim ‘alayhi wa ‘ala nabiyyina afdalus salatu was salam. He was 63 years old, in details: 40 years before being appointed as a prophet (apostolate) and 23 years with the status of prophet. He was appointed as the prophet by the revelation of the surah Al-‘Alaq and being appointed as a Messenger after surah Al-Muddaththir was being revelated. His country was Mecca.
He was being sent to bring mission to remind human from shirk and to pursue them in performing tawheed. The evidence is based on the saying of Allah The Exalted, which means, “O you who enveloped in garments! Arise and warn! And magnify your Lord (Allah)! And purify your garments! And keep away from Ar-Rujz (the idols)! And give not a thing in order to have more (or consider not your deeds of obedience to Allah as a favour to Him). And be patient for the sake of your Lord (i.e. perform your duty to Allah)!” (Surah Al-Muddaththir: 1-7)
The meaning of the verse:
- Arise and warn: Give a warning so that the people leave behind shirk and to pursue them to perform tawheed.
- Magnify your Lord: Magnifying Allah by performing tawheed.
- Purify your garments: Purify your deeds from shirk.
- Keep away the Idols: the meaning of keep away (hajr) is to leave them and to stay away from people who worship them.
He had done it for ten years, which were only preaching tawheed. After ten years, he was being lifted to the sky and he obtained an obligation to pray five times. He performed the pray (five times) in Mecca for three years. Afterwards, he was ordained to migrate to Madina.
Hijrah (migration) is to migrate from shirk country to the Islamic country. Migration is an obligation for this community, which means to move from shirk country to the Islamic country. The ruling of migration is still applicable till the day of Resurrection.
The argument is based on the saying of Allah, which means, “Verily! As for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves (as they stayed among the disbelievers even though emigration was obligatory for them), they (angels) say (to them), ‘In what (condition) were you?’ They reply, ‘We were weak and oppressed on the earth.’ They (angels) say, ‘Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to emigrate therein?’ Such men will find their abode in Hell – What an evil destination! Except the weak ones among men, women and children who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way. These are they whom Allah is likely to forgive them, and Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.” (Surah An-Nisa’: 97-99)
In addition, the word of Allah, which means, “O My slaves who believe! Certainly, spacious is My earth. Therefore worship Me.” (Surah Al-Ankabut: 56)
Imaam Al-Baghawi rahimahullah said, “This verse was revealed in accordance with the moslem community that were staying in Mecca and did not migrate. Allah has called them believers.”
The argument about the ruling of migration from As-Sunna is from the statement of the Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, “Migration will not be given up until the closure of the repentance doors, and the repentance doors will not be closed until the sun rises from the west.”
After the Prophet (Muhammad) sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had stayed and settled down in Madina, he was ordained with other several rulings, such as: zakah, fasting, hajj, adhan (call for prayer), jihad (fight in the path of Allah), amar ma’ruf nahi mungkar, and any other rulings. He also had done these for ten years. He died –salawatullah wa salaamuhu ‘alayhi– while his religion is standing still.
This is his religion, there is no any goodness except he had thought it to his community, and no evil deed that he had warned his people to leave them.
The goodness that he had thought his community was to perform oneness/tawheed and everything that is beloved and blessed by Allah, while evil deed that he had warned to be left behind is performing shirk and everything that he hated and is prohibited by Allah.
He was being sent to all of the people. Allah has ordained all the jinns and human to obey him. The argument is based on the word of Allah, which means, “Say O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah.” (Surah Al-A’raf: 158)
Through him, Allah has perfected the religion. The argument is from the word of Allah, which means, “This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” (Surah Al-Maidah: 3)
The argument that he would die is written in the word of Allah, which means, “Verily you (O Muhammad will die, and verily they (too) will die. Then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will be disputing before your Lord. (Surah Az-Zumar: 30-31)
If human dies, they will be resurrected. The argument is based on the saying of Allah, which means, “Thereof (the earth) We created you, and into it We shall return you, and from it We shall bring you out once again.” (Surah Taha: 55)
Also the word of Allah, which means, “And Allah has brought you forth from the (dust of) earth? Afterwards He will return you into it (the earth), and bring you forth (again on the Day of Resurrection).” (Surah Nuh: 17-18)
After they are being resurrected, they will be judged and given a reward for their deeds. The argument is based on the word of Allah, which means, “And only to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done (i.e. punish them in Hell), and reward those who do good, with what is best (i.e. Paradise).” (Surah An-Najm: 31)
Whoever disgarees with the resurrectio means he is non-believers. The argument comes from the words of Allah, which means, “The disbelievers pretend that they will never be argument resurrected (for the Account). Say (O Muhammad): Yes! By my Lord, you will certainly be resurrected, then you will be informed of (and recompensed for) what you did. And that is easy for Allah.” (Surah At-Taghabun: 7)
Allah has sent all His messenger as the good news, words and warning. The evidence is based on the saying of Allah, which means, “Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea against Allâh after the (coming of) Messengers. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.” (Surah An-Nisa: 165)
The First Messenger was Nuh (Noah) ‘alayhis salam and the last one was Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He is the last prophet.
The argument that supports the fact of Nuh was the first Messenger, comes from the words of Allah, which means, “Verily we revelated to you as we revelated to Nuh and prophets after him.” (Surah An-Nisa’: 163)
Allah sent the Messenger to each ummah, starting from Nuh till Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. They had ordained their nation to only worship to Allah and prohibited them in worshipping to false deities (taghut). The evidence is in the saying of Allah, which means, “Verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming), ‘Worship Allah (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from) Taghut (all false deities).'” (Surah An-Nahl: 36)
Allah has obliged each servant to disbelieve the false deities (taghut) and only believes in Him.
Ibn Al-Qayyim rahimahullah said, “The meaning of false deities (taghut) means something that makes the servant goes beyond the normal, either creation that is treated as God, scholars that are followed, or leaders that are obeyed.”
There are many false deities (taghut), there are five that are considered as the main one:
- Iblis (Devil), may Allah curse him.
- Person who is being worshipped and he blesses it.
- Person who pursues others to worship himself.
- Person who claims that he knows the unseen matters.
- Person who applies ruling with the ruling that is not from Allah.
The argument is from the words of Allah, which means, “There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.” (Surah Al-Baqarah: 256)
This (disbelief towards taghut and believe in Allah) is the meaning of “laa ilaaha illallaah”. In one hadith, it is mentioned, “The top of all matters in islam, the pillar is prayer, and the hump is jihad (fight in the way of Allah).”
by Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Sulaiman
Keyword: Muhammad, Who was Muhammad, Who is Muhammad