Definition and scope of shirk
Shirk means equating between other than Allah and Allah the Exalted, in matters that become the exclusivity of Allah the Exalted.
The exclusivity of Allah encompasses three main points:
First, in rububiyya of Allah, such as creating, controlling the universe, answering prayer, etc. Thus, if there is someone who believe that there are other creation that is able to create something from non-existence, just as Allah do, it means that he has committed shirk in rububiyya.
Second, in uluhiyya of Allah, such as His rights to be worshipped, be the aim of prayers, One whom being asked for help, refuge, One whom being the aim of slaughtering and offering, wish, fear, and love, which are accompanied by submission. If there is someone who slaughtered for the inhabitant of the graves, or sought refuge from natural disaster from the pious men, it means that he has committed shirk in uluhiyya.
Third, rights of perfectness of Names and attributes, such as having the name Allah, Ar Rabb, and Ar Rahman, or having the attribute of knowing the unseen, Hearing, Seeing, Knowing; that no one equals Him in these matters. Thus, if there is someone who believe that his religious teacher is able to hear some far things, or to see distanced things (that is impossible for human being to see), or to know about the future, it means that he has taken other deities beside Allah in Allah’s attributes.
Hence, the shirk might happened in rububiyya, uluhiyya, or Names and attributes of Him.
The types of shirk
Shirk is categorized into several types, based on classifications below (Al Qaulul Mufid, 1/125):
First, shirk classified based on the exclusivity of Allah the Exalted:
a. Shirk in rububiyya
That is believing that there is among the creations of Allah that is able in creating, giving sustenance, enliven, extinguishing, controlling the weather, relieving disaster, and other abilities that are exclusive to Allah alone.
b. Shirk in uluhiyya
That is performing one kind of worships and aiming it to other than Allah, whatever form it takes, whether worshipping of hearts, such as self-resignation, and glorification. Or worship of the tongue, such as vowing, making an oath or swearing by other than Allah. Or the worship of the limbs, such as prostrating to other than Allah.
c. Shirk in the names and attributes of Allah
That is believing that some of Allah’s creations possess special qualities that belong to Allah the Exalted, such as knowing the unseen affairs, and other attributes that are the exclusivity of our Holy Lord.
Second, shirk, according to it’s level, is divided into two classes:
a. The major shirk
Is the act of shirk that causes the committer to expel from Islam, also known as infidel.
There are four types of major shirk:
Shirk in praying
That is lowering oneself to other than Allah, to ask for it’s (the creation) aid and help, or to cling himself to creations.
- Shirk in intentions, aim, and desire
That is associating partners with Allah in the aim of worship, whether in giving the worship to creations or merely having intention to other than Allah when praying.
- Shirk in obedience
That is believing that some creations deserve to have rights in determining the law of Allah or associating partners to Allah in making the law, or obeying creations body and soul, in legalizing what is unlawful according to Allah and vice versa.
- Shirk in love
That is loving creations just as his or her love to Allah. Glorify them, justifying them, worshipping them, in a way that suppose to be given to Allah alone.
b. The minor shirk
Is a kind of shirk that does not expel it’s performer from Islam. The scholars held different opinions in defining this minor shirk.
The first opinion stated that the minor shirk is every deed that is able to delivering the committer to the greater form of shirk.
The second opinion stated that minor shirk is every kind of deed that is considered as shirk based on indications from the Qur’an and hadith, but it doesn’t reach the level that can expel a muslim from Islam. For example: riya’, swearing by names other than Allah, using charms, and so on.
However, it is important to notice that the quality of sins of minor shirk are different one another and at one point it may turn into the major shirk, depends on that quality.
Third, shirk according to it’s place
- Shirk i’tiqadi (shirk in faith)
That is shirk that relates to faith and beliefs. For example, one believes that there are creations that can control the weather.
- Shirk ‘amali (shirk in deeds)
That is associating partners to Allah in deeds. For example: slaughtering to be offered to other than Allah, prostrating to creations, and vowing in the cause of other than Allah, etc.
- Shirk lafzhi (shirk in utterances)
That is shirk in utterances, or sayings, such as swearing by mentioning other name than Allah, as some people usually say, “There is nothing for me but Allah and you”, and “I rely myself on you.”, “If it’s not for Allah and him, I would have got such and such..”, and other sayings that contain shirk.
Fourth, shirk according to it’s clarity and unclarity, is divided into two types:
- Shirk khafi (The Hidden shirk)
That is a very vague shirk, thus it is difficult for someone to recognize it. Such as being amazed by himself, riya’, or exaggerating in relying the cause of sustenance in his income or his job.
- Shirk jali (The Concrete Shirk)
That is an evident act of shirk, that can easily be understood that the act is a form of shirk. For example: Prostrating to other than Allah, and the like.
Important Principles in understanding shirk
The first principle
Indeed, the infidels that were fought by the messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- had admitted that Allah the Exalted is the Creator, and Controller of all affairs. However, their admission was not enough to make them muslim.
The indication is the decree of Allah the Exalted (which can be translated as), “Ask them: “Who provides you with sustenance out of the heavens and the earth? Who holds mastery over your hearing and sight? Who brings forth the living from the dead and the dead from the living? Who governs all affairs of the Universe?” They will surely say: “Allah.” Tell them: “Will you, then, not shun (going against reality)?” (QS. Yunus/Jonah: 31)
The second principle
Indeed, the polytheists that Allah mentioned in the Qur’an, performed the act of shirk due to two reasons:
- To bring them closer to Allah
Allah the Exalted decreed (which can be translated as) :“Lo, religion is exclusively devoted to Allah. Your religion is entirely consecrated to Him. As for those who have taken others than Allah for their guardians, (they say): “We worship them only that they may bring us nearer to Allah.” Allah will judge between them concerning what they differ about. Verily Allah does not guide anyone who is given to sheer lying, is an utter unbeliever.” (Q.s. Az Zumar/Those who set ranks: 3)
- To make them eligible to get the intercession and aid of the creatures they glorified
Allah the Exalted decreed (which can be translated as): “They worship, beside Allah, those who can neither harm nor profit them, saying: “These are our intercessors with Allah.” (QS. Yunus/Jonah: 18)
The third principle
The Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- was sent in middle of society who had different ways of worshipping. Among them there were people who worship the angels. There were also people who worship the prophets and the pious men. The others worship the trees and stones, and also the sun and the moon.
The messenger of Allah –peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- fought them all without making any difference among them. The indication of this principle is the decree of Allah the Exalted, which can be translated as, “And fight against them until the mischief ends and the way prescribed by Allah – the whole of it – prevails. Then, if they give up mischief, surely Allah sees what they do.” (Q.s. Al Anfaal/War booty: 39)
The indication that shows that there were part of them who worshipped the sun and the moon is the decree of Allah the Exalted, which can be translated as, “And of His Signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Do not prostrate yourselves before the sun, nor before the moon, but prostrate yourselves before Allah Who created them, if it is Him that you serve.” (QS. Fushshilat: 37)
The indication that shows that there were part of them who worshipped the angels is the decree of Allah the Exalted, which can be translated as, “He will never enjoin you to take the angels or Prophets for your lords. Will he enjoin upon you unbelief when you have submitted yourselves to Allah?” (Q.s. Ali ‘Imran/The Family of Imran: 80)
The indication that shows that there were part of them who worshipped the prophets is His decree, which can be translated as, “And imagine when thereafter Allah will say: “Jesus, son of Mary, did you say to people: ‚’Take me and my mother for gods beside Allah?’, and he will answer: “Glory to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right to. Had I said so, You would surely have known it. You know all what is within my mind whereas I do not know what is within Yours. You, indeed You, fully know all that is beyond the reach of perception.” (Q.s. Al Maa’idah/The table spread: 116)
The indication that shows that there were part of them who worshipped the pious men is His decree, which can be translated as, “Those whom they call upon are themselves seeking the means of access to their Lord, each trying to be nearer to Him. They crave for His Mercy and dread His chastisement. Surely your Lord’s punishment is to be feared.” (Q.s. Al Israa’/The Night Journey: 57)
The indication that shows that there were part of them who worshipped trees and stones is His decree, which can be translated as, “Have you ever thought about al-Lat and al-‘Uzza, and about the third deity, al-Manat?” (Q.s. An Najm/The Star : 19-20).
And also the mentioned fact was mentioned in the hadith of Abu Waqid Al Laitsi -may Allah be pleased with him. He said, “when the Messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him – went out to Hunain he passed a tree that the idolaters called Dhât Anwât upon which they hung their weapons. They (the Companions) said: “O Messenger of Allah! Make a Dhât Anwât for us as they have a Dhât Anwât.” The Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said: “Subhanallah! This is like what Moses people said: Make for us a god like their gods .(1) By the One in Whose Hand is my soul! You shall follow the ways of those who were before you.” (Narrated by Tirmidhi in hadith no. 2181, Ahmad in his work ‘Musnad’ 5/218. Tirmidhi commented: hadith hasan sahih).
The fourth principle:
The polytheists in out time today is far worse in their shirk activities compared to the ancient polytheists. That is because the ancient polytheists merely performed shirk acts when they were in safe condition, and they sincerely prayed to Allah alone when they were afflicted with troubles. As for the polytheists today, they perform shirk continuously, either in safe condition or in troubles. The indication that supports this statement is the decree of Allah the Exalted, which can be translated as, “When they embark in the ships they call upon Allah, consecrating their faith to Him. But when He rescues them and brings them to land, they suddenly begin to associate others with Allah in His Divinity.” (Q.s. Al ‘Ankabuut/The spider: 65)
The Danger of shirk
Below are several indications from the Holy Qur’an and As sunnah that should be paid attention cautiously. These indications will describe on how terrible and fearful the dangers brought by the shirk acts. May Allah Save us from it.
1. The sin due to shirk will not be forgiven by Allah. Allah the Exalted decreed:
إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ
“Surely Allah does not forgive that a partner be ascribed to Him, although He forgives any other sins for whomever He wills.” (Q.s. An Nisaa’/The Women: 48 and 116)
2. Allah forbid His paradise to be entered by the idolaters ( polytheists). Allah the Exalted decreed:
إِنَّهُ مَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللّهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ اللّهُ عَلَيهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَاهُ النَّارُ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ أَنصَارٍ
“Allah has forbidden Paradise to those who associate anything with Him in His Divinity and their refuge shall be the Fire. No one will be able to help such wrong-doers.” (Q.s. Al Maa’idah/The table spread: 72)
3. An idolater (polytheist) will live eternally in the torments of the Hell. Allah the Exalted decreed:
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ شَرُّ الْبَرِيَّةِ
“Those who disbelieved – be they from among the People of the Book or among those who associated others with Allah in His Divinity – shall be in the Fire, and will abide in it. They are the worst of creatures.” (Q.s. Al Bayyinah/The Explanation: 6)
4. The sin of shirk will extinguish all rewards of pious deeds, no matter how much the deeds are. Allah the Exalted decreed:
وَلَقَدْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ وَلَتَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ
(Tell them clearly that) it was revealed to you and to all Prophets before you: “If you associate any others with Allah in His Divinity, your works will surely come to naught and you will certainly be among the losers.” (Q.s. Az Zumar/Those who set ranks: 65)
5. Shirk is indeed the greatest form of wrongdoing. Allah the Exalted decreed:
وَإِذْ قَالَ لُقْمَانُ لِابْنِهِ وَهُوَ يَعِظُهُ يَا بُنَيَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ
“And call to mind when Luqman said to his son while exhorting him: “My son, do not associate others with Allah in His Divinity. Surely, associating others with Allah in His Divinity is a mighty wrong.” (QS Luqman:13)
6. Allah the Exalted also decreed:
لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلَنَا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَنزَلْنَا مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْمِيزَانَ لِيَقُومَ النَّاسُ بِالْقِسْطِ
“Indeed We sent Our Messengers with Clear Signs, and sent down with them the Book and the Balance that people may uphold justice. And We sent down iron, wherein there is awesome power and many benefits for people, so that Allah may know who, without even having seen Him, helps Him and His Messengers. Surely Allah is Most Strong, Most Mighty.” (QS Al Hadiid/The Iron: 25)
Imam Ibn Al Qayyim -may Allah have mercy on him- said, “Allah revealed that He has sent His messengers, and sent down His Books so that mankind will be able to establish the justice. One of the mightiest justice is tawheed. It is the greatest core and pillar of the justice. Whereas shirk is the mightiest of wrongdoing. Thus, shirk is the wrongest of wrongdoing, while tawheed is the fairest of justice….” (Ad Daa’ wad Dawaa’, page 145)
The messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- once asked his companions thrice, “Shall I not inform you of the biggest of the great sins?” We said, “Yes, O Allâh’s Messenger.” He said, “To join partners in worship with Allah and to be undutiful to one’s parents.” (Narrated by. Al Bukhari in hadith no. 5632 and Muslim no. 144)
7. One who committed shirk thus he becomes an apostate, is legal to be killed according to Islamic sharia
The messenger of Allah-peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said, which can be translated as, “It is unlawful to spill the blood of a muslim but for one of the three reasons: a married one who committed adultery, a muslim who deliberately killed his brother (of the same religion) or one who left his religion, intentionally separating himself from the congregation (out of Islam).” (Narrated by Bukhari in hadith no. 6484 and Muslim no. 1676).
He also said, “Whoever change his religion should be killed.” (Narrated by Al Bukhari in hadith no. 2858)
8. A deed that is tarnished with shirk will be vain and lost just like the flying dust. Allah the Exalted decreed:
وَقَدِمْنَا إِلَى مَا عَمِلُوا مِنْ عَمَلٍ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ هَبَاء مَّنثُوراً
“And We shall turn to their deeds and shall reduce them to scattered dust.” (QS Al Furqan/The Criterion: 23)
9. One who committed shirk in his deeds will be abandoned by Allah
Allah the Exalted decreed in a hadith qudsi, which can be translated as, “I am The Wealthiest, and in no need of associates at all, thus whoever perform deeds by which he associated anything to Me, I will certainly abandon him with his shirk.” (Narrated Muslim in hadith no. 46)
10. The danger of shirk is more worrying to the Prophet than the danger of Dajjal
The messenger of Allah decreed, which can be translated as, “Shall I inform you about the thing that I worry the most, that is threatening you in my view, and is scarier than The Messiah Ad Dajjal?” The companions replied, “Yes, (O messenger of Allah).” He said, “That is the vague shirk. If one started to pray and he make better of his prayer due to the presence of other who’s looking to his prayer.” (Narrated by Ahmad no. 11270)
11. The minor shirk is the most worried sin to be occurred among the best generation, the companions of the Prophet -may Allah be pleased with them.
The Prophet -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- once said, which can be translated as, “The most worried thing to me to be afflicted upon you is the minor shirk.” Then He was asked about it. He answered, “That is riya’/ willing to be seen and praised by others.” (Narrated by. Ahmad, classed sahih by Al Albani in “Ash Shahihah” no. 951 and “Shahihul Jami'” no. 1551)
12. Shirk is the most worried threat to the father of the Prophets, Abraham -peace be upon him- to be afflicted upon him and his descendants.
Allah the Exalted revealed about the prayer of Prophet Abraham in His book,
رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَـذَا الْبَلَدَ آمِناً وَاجْنُبْنِي وَبَنِيَّ أَن نَّعْبُدَ الأَصْنَامَ
“And call to mind when Abraham prayed: My Lord! Make this city secure, and keep me and my sons away from worshipping the idols.” (QS. Ibrahim/Abraham: 35)
Ibrahim At Taimi said, “If so, then who else beside Abraham that may still feel secure from the threat of the calamity (shirk)?!”
Sheikh Abdurrahman Ibn Hasan said, “Thus none will feel safe from falling into shirk but the fools about it and do not understand the causes than can save himself from it: that is knowledge about Allah, knowledge about the teaching of His messenger, that is making Him the One (tawheed) and the prohibition of shirk to Him.” (Fathul Majid, page number. 72)
13. One who died while still indulged in polytheism will surely enter the Hell
The messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said, which can be translated as, “Whoever meets Allah not associating anything with Him will enter Paradise, and whoever meets Him associating anything with Him will enter the Fire.” (Narrated by Muslim).
14. The deeds of One who committed shirk will not be accepted. Allah the Exalted decreed,
فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاء رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلاً صَالِحاً وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَداً
“Hence, whoever looks forward to meet his Lord, let him do righteous works, and let him associate none with the worship of his Lord.” (QS Al Kahf/The Cave: 110)
Imam Ibn Katsir -may Allah have mercy on him- said while citing the verse “[Hence, whoever looks forward to meet his Lord], means that whoever wants the rewards and kind returns from Him, [let him do righteous works], that are works that appropriating the shari’a of Allah,[ and let him associate none with the worship of his Lord.] means that he merely hopes for Allah’s face only, no partners to Him. These are two pillars for a deed to be accepted. A righteous deed or work must be sincerely done for Allah only, and appropriately done according to guidance of the messenger of Allah peace and prayer of Allah be upon him.” (Tafseer Ibn Katsir, 5/154).
Allah’s messenger -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- also said, which can bs translated as, “Whoever comes to the oracle and asks him something, his prayer will not be accepted for forty nights.” (Narrated by Muslim and Ahmad.)
15. A martyr, preacher, or the expert of reading the Qur’an and the philanthropist who are contaminated by shirk, will be first to be judged in the Hereafter and be revealed of his lies and then will be thrown with their faces down-sided and dragged by the angels.
The messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said, which can be translated as, “The first of the people concerning whom judgement will be passed on the Day of Resurrection will be a man who was martyred. He will be brought and [Allâh] will remind him of His blessings, and he will acknowledge them. He will say: ‘What did you do with them?’ He will say: ‘I fought for Your sake until I was martyred.’ He will say: ‘You are lying, rather you fought so that it would be said he is brave, and it was said.’ Then he will be ordered to be dragged on his face and thrown into the Fire.’ And a man who acquired knowledge and taught it, and read Qur’ân, will be brought and [Allâh] will remind him of His blessings, and he will acknowledge them. He will say: ‘What did you do with them?’ He will say: ‘I acquired knowledge and taught it, and I read Qur’ân for Your sake.’ He will say: ‘You are lying. You acquired knowledge and taught it so that it would be said, he is a scholar, and you read Qur’ân so that it would be said, he is a reciter, and it was said.’ Then he will be ordered to be dragged on his face and thrown into the Fire. And a man whom Allâh made rich, and to whom He granted all kinds of wealth will be brought, and [Allâh] will remind him of His blessings, and he will acknowledge them. He will say: ‘What did you do with them?’ He will say: ‘I did not leave any way in which You love wealth to be spent but I spent it for Your sake.’ He will say: `You are lying, rather you did that that so that it would be said, he is generous, and it was said.’ Then he will be ordered to be dragged on his face and thrown into the Fire.” (Narrated by Muslim in hadith no. 152)
16. One who committed shirk will be addicted to his idols and neglected by Allah. Abdullah Ibn ‘Ukaim narrated which chain reaches the Prophet, that he (the Prophet) said, which can be translated as, “Whoever hangs something (charms, and the like, -ed) will be made relying to it and clinging to it.” (Narrated by Ahmad and Tirmidhi, classed hasan by Al Arna’uth in “Takhrij Jami’ul Ushul,” 7/575)
17. One who worshipped other than Allah is the most strayed person in the universe. Allah the Exalted decreed,
وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّن يَدْعُو مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَن لَّا يَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُ إِلَى يَومِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَهُمْ عَن دُعَائِهِمْ غَافِلُ وَإِذَا حُشِرَ النَّاسُ كَانُوا لَهُمْ أَعْدَاء وَكَانُوا بِعِبَادَتِهِمْ كَافِرِينَ
“Who is farther strayed from the Right Path than he who calls upon others than Allah that cannot answer his call till the Day of Resurrection, the while they are not even conscious that callers are calling upon them? When all human beings will be gathered together those who had been called upon will become the enemies to their votaries and will disown their worship.” (QS Al Ahqaf/The Sand Dunes, 5-6)
18. One who committed shirk is a fool man who is unwilling to learn his lesson
Allah the Exalted decreed,
وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّن نَّزَّلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الْأَرْضَ مِن بَعْدِ مَوْتِهَا لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ
If you were to ask them: “Who sent down water from the sky and therewith revived the earth after its death?” they will certainly say: “Allah.” Say: “To Allah alone be praise and thanks.” But most people do not understand. (QS Al Ankabut/The Spider:63)
19. One who committed shirk is a man with a low-level personality who disbelieve in the Almighty of Allah.
The messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said, which can be translated as, “Thiyarah (considering oneself getting bad luck due to seeing, hearing, or knowing something) is shirk. Thiyarah is shirk…” (Narrated by Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi, classed as hasan sahih, see ‘Al Jadid’, page. 259)
20. The deeds of one who committed shirk or glorified the taghut will turn into an eternal regret later in the Hereafter.
Allah the Exalted decreed,
إِذْ تَبَرَّأَ الَّذِينَ اتُّبِعُواْ مِنَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُواْ وَرَأَوُاْ الْعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتْ بِهِمُ الأَسْبَابُ وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُواْ لَوْ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُمْ كَمَا تَبَرَّؤُواْ مِنَّا كَذَلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ اللّهُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ حَسَرَاتٍ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَا هُم بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ
“At that moment those who have been followed will disown their followers, and they will see the chastisement, and their resources will be cut asunder. And the followers will then say: “Oh if only we might return again, we would disown them as they have disowned us?” Thus Allah will show them their works in a manner causing them bitter regrets. Never will they come out of the Fire.” (Q.s. Al Baqarah/The Cow: 166-167)
21.One who committed shirk thus he loves his idol that makes him associating Allah in love in worship, will never taste the sweetness of faith.
The messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said, which can be translated as, “There are three characteristics, whoever attains them has found the sweetness of faith: When Allâh and His Messenger are dearer to him than others than them, when he loves a man and does not love him except for the sake of Allâh, and when he would hate to return to disbelief after Allâh has saved him from it, as he would hate to be thrown into the fire.” (Narrated by Al Bukhari in hadith no. 16 and Muslim no. 67)
22. One who committed shirk will not be sufficed by Allah.
Allah the Exalted decreed,
وَمَن يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بَالِغُ أَمْرِهِ قَدْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدْراً
“and will provide him sustenance from whence he never even imagined. Whoever puts his trust in Allah, He shall suffice him. Surely Allah brings about what He decrees; Allah has set a measure for everything.” (Q.s. Ath Thalaq/The Divorce: 3)
23. One who committed shirk deserves to be afflicted by calamity due to the prayer of the messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him-.
The messenger of Allah -peace and prayer of Allah be upon him- said, which can be translated as, “Let the slave of Dinâr and Dirham, and Khamisa and Khamila perish for he is pleased if these things are given to him, and if not, he is displeased! Let him be perished and lost…” (Narrated by Al Bukhari in hadith no. 2730)
24. One who committed shirk will certainly be afflicted with disaster or dreadful and painful torments. Allah the Exalted decreed,
فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ أَن تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
“Let those who go against the order (of the Messenger) beware lest a trial or severe punishment afflict them.” (Q.s. An Nur/The Light: 63)
Ways to protect ourselves from shirk:
- Making all of our worships sincerely to Allah the Almighty alone, and keep trying to purify our tawheed.
- Learning the religious knowledge.
- Recognizing the impacts of shirk and realizing that shirk will make one who did it to be eternal in the Hell fire and will extinguish all pious deeds.
- Realizing that the major shirk will not be forgiven by Allah.
- Avoiding making friend with the fools who indulge in various kinds of shirk.
Books written about tawheed and shirk:
The essence of tawheed and shirk based on indications from the Qur’an and hadith, along with the explanations of the trusted scholars, could be learned from the following books:
- Tsalatsatul Ushul (The Three Main Foundations ) by Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Sulaiman At Tamimi -may Allah have mercy on him.
- Qawa’idul Arba’ (The Four Principles) by Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Sulaiman At Tamimi-may Allah have mercy on him.
- Kitab Tauhid Alladzi Huwa Haqqullahi ‘Alal ‘Abiid, by Sheikh Muhammad bin Sulaiman At Tamimi-may Allah have mercy on him.
- Kasyfu Syubuhaat, by Sheikh Muhammad bin Sulaiman At Tamimi- may Allah have mercy on him.
- Kitab Tauhid 1, 2 and 3, by Sheikh Shalih Al Fauzan and the other scholars.
- Dalaa’ilut Tauhid (50 questions and answers of the creed) by Sheikh Muhammad bin Sulaiman At Tamimi – may Allah have mercy on him.
- Tanbihaat Muhtasharah Syarh Al Wajibaat (The explanation of things that must be known by muslim and muslim ladies) by Sheikh Ibrahim bin Syekh Shalih Al Khuraishi
- Syarah Tsalatsatul Ushul (The explanation of the three main foundations) by Syekh Muhammad bin Shalih Al ‘Uthaymeen – may Allah have mercy on him.
- Hasyiyah Tsalatsatul Ushul , by Sheikh Abdurrahman bin Qasim Al Hanbali An Najdi- may Allah have mercy on him.
- Taisirul Wushul ila Nailil Ma’muul, by Syekh Nu’man bin Abdul Karim Al Watr
- Hushulul Ma’mul bi Syarhi Tsalatsatil Ushul, by Sheikh Abdullah bin Shalih Al Fauzan
- Thariqul Wushul ila Idhaahi Tsalatsatil Ushul, by Sheikh Zaid bin Muhammad bin Hadi Al Madkhali -may Allah safeguard him.
- Syarah Kitab Tsalatsatul Ushul, by Sheikh Shalih bin Abdul ‘Aziz Alusy Syekh -may Allah safeguard him.
- Syarah Qawa’idul Arba’, by Sheikh Shalih bin Abdul ‘Aziz Alusy Syekh.
- Fathul Majid Syarah Kitab Tauhid (Unveiling the root of shirk) by Sheikh Abdurrahman bin Hasan -may Allah have mercy on him.
- Qaulus Sadid fi Maqashidi Tauhid (The systematic explanation of the book of Tawheed) by Sheikh Abdurrahman bin Nashir As Sa’di -may Allah have mercy on him.
- Qaulul Mufid Syarah Kitab Tauhid, by Sheikh Muhammad bin Shalih Al ‘Uthaymeen- may Allah have mercy on him.
- Ibthalut Tandiid bi Ikhtishaari Syarhi Kitabit Tauhid, by Sheikh Hamad bin ‘Atiq -may Allah have mercy on him.
- Al Mulakhkhash fi Syarhi Kitabit Tauhid, by DR. Shalih bin Fauzan Al Fauzan -may Allah safeguard him.
- Al Jadid fi Syarhi Kitabit Tauhid (The simple way to understand tawheed) by Sheikh Muhammad bin Abdul ‘Aziz Al Qar’awi
- At Tamhid li Syarhi Kitabit Tauhid, by Sheikh Shalih bin Abul ‘Aziz Alusy Syekh -may Allah safeguard him.
- Syarah Kasyfu Syubuhaat, by Sheikh Shalih Al Fauzan.
- Syarah Kasfyu Syubuhaat, by Sheikh Muhammad bin Shalih Al ‘Uthaymeen.
- Syarah Kasyfu Syubuhaat, by Sheikh Shalih bin Abdul ‘Aziz Alusy Syekh.
- At Taudhihaat Al Kasyifaat ‘ala Kasfi Syubuhaat, by Sheikh Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Shalih Al Habdan.
- Ad Dalaa’il wal Isyaraat ‘ala Kasyfi Subuhaat, by Sheikh Shalih bin Muhammad Al Asmari.
- Minhaaj Al Firqah An Najiyah, by Sheikh Muhammad bin Jamil Zainu.
- Kitab ‘Aqidah Ath Thahawiyah, by Imam Abu Ja’far Ath Thahawi – may Allah have mercy on him.
- Syarah ‘Aqidah Thahawiyah, by Imam Ibnu Abil ‘Izz Al Hanafi -may Allah have mercy on him.
- ‘Aqidah Thahawiyah Syarh wa Ta’liq, by Sheikh Al Albani -may Allah have mercy on him.
- Ta’liq ‘Aqidah Thahawiyah, by Sheikh Shalih Al Fauzan.
Purifying tawheed from the taints of shirk
Sheikh Abdurrahman Ibn Hasan said that the meaning of realizing tawheed is by purifying it from the taints of shirk, innovations, and wickedness (see “Ibthaalu Tandiid” page. 28). Hence, for a muslim to realize his tawheed, he should:
Abandon all forms of shirk: the major and minor shirk, and the vague shirk.
Abandon all forms of innovations.
Abandon all forms of wickedness.
(See ‘At Tamhid’, page. 33)
One may truly realizes tawheed in him if he is able to gather three things in him:
Knowledge, because it is impossible for one to realize something that he doesn’t know. Allah decreed, which can be translated as, “Know, therefore, (O Prophet), that there is no god but Allah,” (QS Muhammad: 19)
Faith. Because one who knows about tawheed without having faith in it is an arrogant person. Thus he will not be able to realize tawheed. His condition is similar to the infidels of Quraish who understood the meaning of tawheed but they refused it, as Allah revealed in His verse, which can be translated as, “Has he made the gods one single God? This is truly astounding.” (QS. Shad: 5)
Obedience to His rules. One who has known the essence of tawheed, and believe in it, but refuses to obey the consequences of it, is not considered as one who truly realizes tawheed.
- Qowaidul Arba’ (The Four Principles), by Sheikh Muhammad bin Sulaiman At Tamimi