Definition of “The Last Day”
The Last Day means the doomsday, day of judgement, where all creations are resurrected to be reckoned, and rewarded or punished accordingly.
It is named “the last day” because there will no day after it, where the dwellers of the Heaven have settled inside the Heaven and the dwellers of Hereafter have settled in the realm of Hereafter.
The elements of faith in the Last Day
To believe in the Last Day contains three elements (Taken from “Sharh Ushul Iman, page 38-51)
 To believe in Al Ba’ts (Resurrection)
The day of Resurrection is a process where the already dead creations are resurrected, on the second blow of the trumpet. At that day, all mankind will stand before their Lord, the Lord of universe, without any footwear, naked, and uncircumcised. These conditions are mentioned in the verse:
“Even as We originated the creation first so We shall repeat it. This is a promise binding on Us; and so We shall do.” (The Prophets: 104)
Resurrection is true, an upcoming event. It is indicated by the Book, the Sunnah, and consensus of the believers. Allah the Exalted decreed, which can be translated as, “Thereafter you are destined to die, and then on the Day of Resurrection you shall certainly be raised up.” (The Believers: 15-16)
Prophet Muhammad -may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- also said, “You will be gathered (on the Day of Judgement), bare-footed, naked and not circumcised.” (Narrated by Al Bukhari in hadith no. 4349), and Muslim in hadith no, 56)
Muslims are agree upon the existence of the Resurrection Day, because that suits the wisdom of Allah, where Allah will restore the life of His creations to be rewarded of their deeds, whether or not their deeds fit His orders which He had sent through His messengers. Allah the Exalted decreed, which can be translated as, “Did you imagine that We created you without any purpose, and that you will not be brought back to Us?” (The Believers: 115)
In another verse, Allah also decreed, in a dialogue type, to His messenger – may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him-, which can be translated as, “(O Prophet), surely He Who has ordained the Qur’an on you will bring you to the best end.“(The Stories: 85)
. To believe in the hisab (reckoning of the deeds) and jaza’ (reward), that is by believing that all deeds of mankind will be reckoned and rewarded.
It is evidently exposed inside the Qur’an, the Sunnah, and the consensus of the muslims. Allah decreed, which can be translated as, “Surely to Us is their return; and then it is for Us to call them to account.” (The Overwhelming: 25-26)
And His verse, which can be translated as, “Whoever will come to Allah with a good deed shall have ten times as much, and whoever will come to Allah with an evil deed, shall be requited with no more than the like of it. They shall not be wronged.” (The Cattle: 160)
From the authority of Ibn Umar -may Allah be pleased with him- , it is narrated that the Prophet -may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- said: “Allah will bring a believer near to Him, and put a cover and cover him up. Allah will ask: “Do you know what your sins are?” He replied, “Yes, my Lord.” When he already admitted his sins, and he sees that he is destroyed, Allah the Exalted declares: I have covered up your sins in the world and now I forgive them.’ Then he will handed the book of his righteous deeds. Whereas the unbelievers and the hypocrites, Allah the Exalted will call them in front of a large number of masses. They are the ones who gave lie to their Lord. Know, that the curse of Allah is aimed for wrong-doers.” (Narrated by Al Bukhari in hadith no. 2309)
In a valid hadith, it is said that the Prophet -may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- said: “Indeed, a man who intended to do one goodness, and he performed it, it will be written for him 10 goodness, until 700 folds of it, even some folds more. Whereas whoever intended to do a wickedness, and he committed it, Allah will only write for him one wickedness.” (Narrated by Ibn Hibban, in hadith no. 383, classed sahjh by Shuaib Al Arnauth)
Muslims have agreed upon the existence of reckoning and rewarding process in the Hereafter. This is the consequence of Allah’s wisdom. Because Allah the Exalted have sent down the Books, delegated the messengers, and commanded to all mankind to receive the teaching of the messengers and fulfill the obligations in it. Allah also have obliged to set war to the defiant, and made legal their blood to be shed, their offsprings, wives, and their properties. If it is not for the reckoning, these matters will become vain. Allah the Exalted has beckoned it in His decree, which can be translated as, “So We shall call to account those to whom Messengers were sent, and We shall call to account the Messengers (to see how dutifully they conveyed the Message, and how people responded to it). Then We shall narrate to them with knowledge the whole account. For surely We were not away from them.” (The Height: 6-7)
. To believe in the existence of Heaven and Hell as a final, eternal settlement of the mankind
Heaven, is a place of everlasting pleasures, which Allah has prepared to be inhabited by the pious believers, who believe in all things that must be believed in, who obey Allah and His messenger, who genuinely perform their deeds due to Allah’s Cause.
Heaven bears various delights, never seen by any eyes, never heard by any ears, nor popped in anyone’s mind. Allah decreed, which can be translated as: “But those that believe and work righteous deeds, they are the best of creatures. Their recompense lies with their Lord: Gardens of eternity beneath which rivers flow; therein they shall dwell, forever and ever. Allah is well-pleased with them, and they are well-pleased with Him. All this is for him who fears his Lord.” (The Clear Proof: 7-8)
Allah also declared, which can be translated as, ” No one knows what delights of the eyes are kept hidden for them as a reward for their deeds.” (The Prostration: 17)
Meanwhile, the Hell is a place of tortures and miseries, prepared by Allah -the Exalted for the unbelievers, who committed wrong doings, and for those who deny Allah and His messenger. Inside it, there are various sorrows and scary things, never crossed in anyone’s heart. Allah decreed, which can be translated as, “and do have fear of the Fire which awaits those who deny the Truth,” (The Family of Imran:31)
The Parts of faith in the Last Day
The faith in the Last Day comprises, to believe in the events that will take place after the death, for example:
[a]. The trial of the grave
Trial of the grave are questions, given to the deceased after the burial, about who is his Lord, what is his religion, and who is his prophet. Allah will strengthen the believers with firm and certain answers. They will answer the questions strictly and faithfully, “Allah is my Lord, Islam is my religion, and Muhammad-may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- is my prophet.” And Allah will lead to astray, the wrong-doers and unbelievers. They will answer the questions with confusion, as those questions are remote to them. They will answer, ” Hah..hah..I don’t know”. Whereas the hypocrites will answer confusedly, ‘I do not know. I heard people said about something and then I said it too.”
[b]. The delight and torment of the grave
The torment of the grave is prepared for the wrong-doers, that are the hypocrites and unbelievers, as Allah revealed in His verse, which can be translated as, “Who can be more unjust than he who foists a lie on Allah or says: “If you could but see the wrongdoers in the agonies of death, and the angels stretching out their hands (saying): “Yield up your souls! Today you will be recompensed with the chastisement of humiliation for the lie you spoke concerning Allah, and for you waxing proud against His Signs.” (The Cattle: 93)
Allah the Exalted decreed about The Pharaoh’s family, which can be translated as: “They are exposed to the Fire every morning and evening; and when the Last Hour will come to pass, a command shall be given: “Admit the Pharaonites to an even more severe chastisement.” (The Believer: 46)
In “Sahih Muslim”, the collection of valid sayings of the Prophet by Imam Muslim, Zayd Ibn Thabit reported that the Prophet-may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- said: “If it is not for your deed burying one another (the deceased one), I should have asked Allah to overheard the torment of the grave to you, which I hear. Then the Prophet -may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- faced them and said, “Seek the refuge from Allah from the torment of the Hell.” The companions said, “We seek refuge from Allah from the torment of the hell.” The Prophet -may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- said again, “Seek the refuge from Allah from the torment of the grave.” The companions said, “We seek refuge from Allah from the torment of the grave.” And then he said again, “Seek the refuge from Allah from various trials, whether the seen or unseen ones.” The companions then said, “We seek refuge from Allah from various trials, whether the seen or unseen ones.” The Prophet -may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- said again, “Seek the refuge from Allah from the trial of Dajjal.” The companions said, “We seek refuge from Allah from the trial of Dajjal.” (Narrated by Muslim, in hadith no. 67)
As for the delight of the grave is prepared for the honest believers, as Allah the Exalted revealed in His decree, which can be translated as: “Those who say “Allah is our Lord” and then remain steadfast, upon them descend angels (and say): “Do not fear nor grieve, and receive good tidings of Paradise which you were promised.” (Fussilat: 67)
Allah decreed, which can be translated as, “Why, then, when the soul leaps up to the throat,the while you are helplessly watching that he is on the verge of death,- at that moment when We are closer to him than you, although you do not see (Us) if you are not subject to anyone’s authority, why are you then not able to bring them back to life if you are truthful? So if he is one of those who are near-stationed (to Allah),then happiness and delight and Gardens of Bliss are his.” (The Inevitable:83-89)
From Barra Ibn Azib -may Allah be pleased with him- said that the Prophet -may peace and blessing of Allah be upon him- said about the condition of the believer when they were put into trial in their grave. He said, “There will a voice comes from the sky: My slave is right. Thus, give him sheet from heaven, and bear to him the delights and fragrance and Heaven, and his grave will be expanded as sight long.” (Narrated by Ahmad in hadith no, 13557, classed sahih by Sheikh Shuhaib al Arnauth)
The excellent results of having faith in the Last Day
. To be fond of obedience together with hoping to get the rewards on the Judgement day.
. To loathe the wrong doings, together with fear of torment on the Judgement day.
. To comfort the believer, regarding all matters he endured while living in this world, together with hoping for the delights and rewards on the Hereafter.
The unbelievers denied the existence of resurrection after the death, supposing that the Judgement day and all of it’s events are impossible. This is a very erroneous belief, which can be countered by indications from shari’a, from senses, and mind (intelligence).
. Indications from shari’a
Allah the Exalted decreed, which can be translated as, “The unbelievers have vehemently contended that they shall not be raised to life. Say to them: “Yes, by my Lord, you shall surely be raised to life, and you shall certainly be fully informed of all that you did. That is easy enough for Allah.” (At Taghaabun/The Mutual Disillusion: 7)
All heavenly holy Books agreed upon the existence of the Resurrection Day.
. Proof of senses
Allah the Exalted have shown how His ability to bring back the death to this world. In the chapter of Al Baqara (The Cow), there are five examples about this issue.
[a]. When the people of Moses ask their prophet Moses -peace be upon him- that they will not believe in the treatise conveyed by Moses -peace be upon him-, until they see Allah with their own eyes. Thus, Allah said to the offsprings of Israel, which can be translated as, “And recall when you said: “O Moses, we will not believe in you until we clearly see Allah (speaking to you).” Thereupon a tremendous thunderbolt struck you before your very eyes. Then We revived you after your extinction, that you might be grateful.” (The Cow: 55-56)
[b]. The story of the murdered man, whose murderer was disputed by the offsprings of Israel
Allah The Exalted ordered them to slaughter a cow, and use the meat to hit the body of the death, so that he could tell about who was his murderer. This is revealed in His decree, which can be translated as, “And recall when you killed a man and then began to remonstrate and cast the blame (of killing) upon one another even though Allah was determined to bring to light what you were hiding. Then We ordered: “Smite the corpse with a part of it.” Thus does Allah bring the dead to life and thus does He show His Signs that you might understand.” (The Cow: 72-73)
[c]. The story of the people who run out of their country for fear of death
the offsprings of Israel whom Allah put into death were thousands. Allah put them into death, then revived them. This phenomenon is described inside His verse, which can be translated as, “(O Messenger), have you thought of those who went forth from their homes for fear of death even though they were in their thousands? Allah said to them: “Die!” Then He restored them to life. Indeed Allah is Bounteous to mankind; but most people do not give thanks in return.” (The Cow: 243)
[d]. The story of a man who passed by a destroyed village
He was confuse, how can Allah revive this destroyed village. Allah made him dead for a hundred years, then restored him to life. This is revealed inside His verse, which can be translated as, “Or consider him by way of example who passed by a town that was fallen down upon its turrets. He exclaimed: “How will Allah restore life to this town that is now dead?” Allah then caused him to remain dead for a hundred years and then raised him to life, and asked him: “How long did you remain in this state?” He replied: “I remained so for a day or a part of a day.” Allah rejoined: “No, you have rather stayed thus for a hundred years. But look at your food and your drink, there is no deterioration in them. And look at your ass (how its entire skeleton has rotted)! And We did all this so that We might make you a token of instruction for people. And see how We will put the bones (of the ass) together and will clothe them with flesh.” Thus when the reality became clear to him, he said: “I know that Allah has power over everything.” (The Cow: 259)
[e]. The story of Allah’s prophet, Abraham, Al Khalil
Abraham -peace be upon him- once asked Allah to show him how He revive the dead. Allah ordered him to slaughter four birds and mutilate it’s body parts and spread it on the separate mountains around him. Abraham called the birds, and not long after that, the mutilated body parts emerged and united into a bird and came to Abraham.
Allah revealed this in the Noble Qur’an, which can be translated as, “And recall when Abraham said: “My Lord, show me how You give life to the dead,” Allah said: “Why! Do you have no faith?” Abraham replied: “Yes, but in order that my heart be at rest.” He said: “Then take four birds, and tame them to yourself, then put a part of them on every hill, and summon them; they will come to you flying. Know well that Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.” (The Cow: 260)
These are among the examples and sensible proofs that point out how Allah is truly capable of bringing the dead ones into life. As implicitly shown above, Allah made the signs of prophecy of Jesus, son of Mary, his ability to revive the dead and bring them out of their graves, by Allah’s permission.
. The Proofs from one’s mind (Intelligence/logic)
This kind of proofs could be divided into two parts:
[a]. Allah the Exalted, as the Creator of the heavens and the earth and all of it’s content, had created it for the first time. Thus, if Allah is able to created all of those things once, He is surely capable of repeating the creation.
Allah decreed, which can be translated as, “It is He Who creates in the first instance and it is He Who will repeat the creation, and that is easier for Him. His is the loftiest attribute in the heavens and the earth. He is the Most Mighty, the Most Wise.” (The Romans: 27)
Allah also decreed, which can be translated as, “On that Day We shall roll up the heavens like a scroll for writing. Even as We originated the creation first so We shall repeat it. This is a promise binding on Us; and so We shall do.” (The Prophets: 104)
And His verse, which can be translated as, “Say: “He Who first brought them into being will quicken them; He knows well about every kind of creation;” (Chapter ‘Yaa Sin’: 79)
[b]. The dead and barren land will be alive and the dead plants will move and grow profusely after the pouring of the rain. One who’s capable to bring it back after it’s death, and the One who’s capable of reviving the dead, must be Allah the Exalted, the Mighty One, and The Wills.
Allah the Exalted decreed, which can be translated as, “And of His Signs is that you see the earth withered, then We send down water upon it, and lo! it quivers and swells. Surely He Who gives life to the dead earth will also give life to the dead. Surely He has power over everything.” (Fussilat: 39)
Allah the Exalted decreed, which can be translated as, “We also sent down blessed water from the heaven, wherewith We caused gardens and harvest-grain to grow, and tall palm-trees with their thickly-clustered spathes; all this as sustenance for Our servants. And thus We do bring the dead land back to life with water. Such shall be the coming forth (of human beings from the earth).” (The Letter “Qaf”: 9-11)
People who deny the torment and delight of the grave perceive that those are impossible matters, contrary to reality, because when the grave is reopened, the condition is still the same as before, not get expanded nor narrowed. Their belief clearly contradict the indications from shari’a, senses, and mind (intelligence).
. Indication from shari’a
Ibn Abbas -may Allah be pleased with him- said: “The messenger of Allah -may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- ever walked out from one of the gardens of Medina. Then he heard two person were tormented in their graves.” In that hadith it is mentioned that one was tormented because he urinate carelessly, and the other one due to he committed pitting.” (Narrated by Al Bukhari)
. Indications from senses
The sleeping ones sometimes dreamed that he is standing in a very vast place, full of joys and he have some fun in it. But sometimes he could dreamed of himself be on a confined, narrow, sad, and hurtful place. Sometimes he even awaken by those dreams, and he found himself just on his bed. Sleeping resembles death in some way, thus Allah dubbed the sleep ‘dead’, as in His decree, which can be translated as, “It is Allah Who takes away the souls of people at the hour of their death, and takes away at the time of sleep the souls of those that have not died. Then He retains the souls of those against whom He had decreed death and returns the souls of others till an appointed time. Surely there are Signs in this for a people who reflect.” (The Troops: 42)
. Indications from Human’s mind
The sleeping ones sometimes have a true dream, which suits the reality. He could probably see the Prophet -may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- according to his attributes. Whoever have dreamt of him according to his attributes, it is like he truly sees him. Whereas he is in his bed at that time, far from what he have been dreaming about. If such is a possible condition to encounter in this world, how can it be an impossible thing to encounter in the Hereafter?
As for their argument that if the grave being opened, the condition will still be the same, the answers are:
. Whatever comes from shari’a must not be contradicted with falsehoods. If those who make such contradiction willing to think about what has been conveyed to them from shari’a, they must be able to find out the mistake of their misunderstanding.
A poet said: ” How many people reproach the true opinions, whereas the doom comes from the wrong understanding.”
. The condition inside the barzakh (realm of the grave) is among the supernatural things which can not be reached by senses, since if it is sense-reachable, the wisdom beneath faith in the supernaturals will be vain, and the faithful will be just as people who deny it, on their faith upon that thing.
. The delight and torment of the grave, the expanded or narrowed state of the grave will only be encountered by the deceased himself, not the others. This is as a sleeping man who is dreaming of being in the narrow, scary place, or in the vast, cheerful place, whereas people see him still sleeping, unchanged, in his room and in his bed.
When prophet Muhammad -may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- received the divine decree, he was among his companions. He heard of it, but the companions were unable to hear it. And it is possible that the revelation took place as an angel turned into a man and spoke to him, while the companions didn’t see or hear him.
. Human knowledge is confined to the things which Allah has allowed them to know. it is impossible for them to know every single thing in universe. The seven skies, the earth, and all of it’s content, all exalts Allah by praising Him with the true exaltation, which Allah sometimes made heard to ones He wish. Although it is screened from us.
Also, the satan and jinn who moves back and forth, traveling on earth. Once there was a jinn came to the Prophet -may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him- and listened to his recitation, after that the jinn got back to his people as a preacher. However, they are still unseen to us.
Regarding this issue, Allah the Exalted decreed, which can be translated as, “Children of Adam! Let not Satan deceive you in the manner he deceived your parents out of Paradise, pulling off from them their clothing to reveal to them their shame. He and his host surely see you from whence you do not see them. We have made satans the guardians of those who do not believe.” (The Height: 27)
If human will never be able to know ever single thing in this universe, then they must not deny the supernatural things which has been settled by shari’a, even though they are unable to comprehend it by their senses.
- “Al Jami’ As Shahih Al Mukhtashar”, by Muhammad Ibn Ismail Al Bukhari, published by Dar Ibnu Katsir, Beirut, 1407 H
- “Shahih Muslim”, by Muslim Ibn Hajjaj An Naisaburi, published by Dar Ihaya’ At Turots, Beirut.
- “Shahih Ibn Hibban”, by Muhammad Ibn Hibban Al Busti, published by Muassasah Ar Risalah, Beirut, 1414 H
- “Musnad Imam Ahmad”, by Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal, published by Muassasah Qurthubah, Cairo.
- “Sharh Ushul Iman”, by Muhammad Ibn Sholeh Al Uthaymeen, published by Dar Al Qosim, Arab Saudi, 1419 H